Snow Hydrology Sensors and Instrumentation
A Book by Dr Raman K Attri
Attri, RK 2018, Research and Design of Snow Hydrology Sensors and Instrumentation, R.Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Snow Hydrology), 2nd edn., Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©, Singapore.
RESEARCH AND DESIGN OF SNOW HYDROLOGY SENSORS AND INSTRUMENTATION: Selected Research Papers
R. Attri Instrumentation Design Series (Snow Hydrology)
by Dr. Raman K. Attri
Published by Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©
Published: Dec 2018
ISBN: 978-981-11-9763-5 (e-book) $9.99
ISBN: 978-981-14-0342-2 (paperback) $19.99
Delivers 21 must-know, powerful revelations from a large-scale research study on the classroom, online and on-the-job learning for training leaders of today’s business world. Read it today!!!
This book is a collection of eight in-depth and detailed research papers authored by Dr. Raman K Attri between 1996 to 2005. The book presents early-career scientific work by the author as a scientist at a research organization. The book provides the conceptual background and key electronics and mechanical design principles used in designing sensors and instrumentation systems to measure snow hydrological parameters. The systems discussed in this book can be used to measure snow depth, layer temperature, temperature distribution profile, surface porosity, etc. The snow parameters measured from instruments and sensors discussed in this book are integrated into larger systems and are used in computer-driven models for snow avalanche predictions.
The book presents the design challenges and design methods from electronics and instrumentation design point of view. While the book provides essential understanding of analog electronics design and associated mechanical design for snow hydrological sensors, the book also presents the background theoretical and mathematical models from snow hydrology physics that governs this electronics design.
The book may be read as an applied text-book in conjunction with standard electronics and instrumentation design textbooks. The book will guide students on how to apply basic principles of instrumentation systems design, integrate concepts of physical sciences and measurement sciences for the field applications.
The first research paper discusses the design control techniques used to the design a remote surface detector to detect objects with porous, uneven, irregular surfaces like snow using ultrasonic beams.
The second research paper describes signal processing techniques and electronics design approaches to design a snow depth sensor with improved sensitivity and directional response using Ultrasonic Pulse-Transit Method.
The third research paper explains theoretical and mathematical model that governs the physical, mechanical, and electronics design to implement the theory of Arrayed Ultrasonic transducers to shape up the directional response and beam width of an ultrasonic beam to improve the chances of receiving sufficient reflection from the non-smooth, highly porous, uneven, non-planar, irregular snow surface.
The fourth research paper presents the design considerations and performance characteristics of Snow Temperature Profile Sensing System used to measure the temperature gradient and temperature distributions within and outside the snowpack at different depths.
The fifth research paper focuses on describing the design of Snow Temperature Profile Sensing System in details and discusses the theoretical and mathematical model that outline important temperature parameters. Then the paper describes how the system is implemented to record or measure those parameters.
The sixth research paper presents the design considerations, constraints and design techniques used to use RTD temperature sensors for snow temperature measurement applications. The paper also presents the performance evaluation and suitability of such sensors.
The seventh research paper focuses on design techniques for front-end analog signal conditioning module and the design challenges faced when interfacing analog unit to a data acquisition system.
The eighth research paper describes the design of snow air temperature sensing probe and methods to ensure that it measures true air temperature over a snow cover and is not influenced by solar radiations and winds.
Paper 1:DESIGN OF A RELIABLE REMOTE SURFACE DETECTOR BASED ON ULTRASONIC PULSE-TRANSIT TECHNIQUE TO DETECT UNEVEN & NON-SMOOTH POROUS SNOW SURFACES
2. ISSUES WITH PERFORMANCE OF POROUS SURFACE DETECTORS
3. DESIGN TECHNIQUES & RESULTS
4. EXPERIMENTAL SETUP OF REMOTE SURFACE DETECTOR (RSD)
5. DISCUSSION ON SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Paper 2:DESIGN STRATEGY OF SNOW DEPTH SENSOR BASED ON ULTRASONIC PULSE-TRANSIT TECHNIQUE FOR REMOTE MEASUREMENT OF SNOW COVER THICKNESS
2. DESIGN CONSTRAINTS
3. OVERVIEW SNOW DEPTH SENSOR SYSTEM ARCHITECTURE
4. DESIGN APPROACH
5. SYSTEM PERFORMANCE EVALUATION
6. DESIGN USED FOR COMPENSATION OF OBSERVED ERRORS AND IMPROVEMENT OF SYSTEM RELIABILITY
Paper 3:IMPLEMENTATION OF LINEAR ARRAY OF ULTRASONIC TRANSMITTER-RECEIVER TRANSDUCERS FOR DETECTION OF NON-SMOOTH POROUS SURFACE
2. PROBLEMS DUE TO ENERGY LOSSES IN NON-SMOOTH POROUS MATERIAL
3. DESIGN SOLUTIONS
4. PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF ULTRASONIC TRANSDUCER ARRAYS
5. THEORY BEHIND THE PHYSICAL IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSDUCER ARRAY
6. IMPLEMENTATION OF TRANSDUCER ARRAY
7. CONSIDERATIONS FOR IMPROVEMENT OF DIRECTIONAL RESPONSE
Paper 4:SNOWPACK TEMPERATURE PROFILE SENSOR
2. SIGNIFICANCE OF DATA RELATED WITH SNOW PACK TEMPERATURE DISTRIBUTION
3. SNOW TEMPERATURE SENSOR SYSTEM DESIGN REQUIREMENTS
4. SYSTEM DESCRIPTION
5. MECHANICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
6. PERFORMANCE AND EVALUATION
Paper 5:DESIGN OF AN INSTRUMENTATION SYSTEM TO RECORD DISTRIBUTION PROFILE OF SNOW LAYER TEMPERATURE FOR MODELING OF SNOW AVALANCHE FORECAST
2. THEORETICAL BACKGROUND
3. DESIGN OF SNOW TEMPERATURE MEASURING SYSTEM
4. APPLICATION OF MEASURED DATA USING SYSTEM
Paper 6:DESIGN APPROACH TO USE PLATINUM RTD SENSOR IN SNOW TEMPERATURE MEASUREMENTS
2. DESIGN APPROACH TO MINIMIZE THE ERRORS
3. OTHER DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS
Paper 7:PRACTICAL DESIGN CONSIDERATIONS FOR SIGNAL CONDITIONING UNIT INTERFACED WITH MULTI-POINT SNOW TEMPERATURE RECORDING SYSTEM
2. SYSTEM OVERVIEW
3. DESIGN RESTRICTIONS
4. DESIGN APPROACH FOR MULTIPLEXING OF CHANNELS
5. MEASURING SYSTEM INTERFACING ASPECTS
6. GROUNDING AND SHIELDING ASPECTS IN INTERFACING
7. NOISE REDUCTION ASPECTS AND RELATED DESIGN CONSIDERATION
Paper 8: DESIGN OF A TRUE SNOW AIR TEMPERATURE SENSING PROBE
2. DESIGN REQUIREMENTS OF THE SYSTEM
3. SYSTEM DESIGN
4. DESIGN TRADEOFFS AND TECHNIQUES TO IMPROVE SYSTEM PERFORMANCE
Dr. Raman K Attri is a corporate business researcher, learning strategist, and management consultant. Masters in electronics engineering, he served as a electronics design scientist at a premier research organization. He has served at technical and product development roles at leading international corporations. As an engineer, he specializes in systems engineering of complex equipment, scientific instrumentation sensors and system design. His international professional career spanned over 25 years across a range of disciplines such as scientific research, systems engineering, management consulting, training operations, and learning design. With his technical and training background, he focuses on the competitive strategies to develop the technical workforce with higher-order troubleshooting and problem-solving skills at a much faster rate. He provides strategic consulting to the organizations by accelerating time-to-proficiency of employees through well-researched models. He holds a doctorate in business from Southern Cross University, Australia.