The Models of Skill Acquisition and Expertise Development
A Book by Dr Raman K Attri
‘The journey toward expertise is unceasing. Even those who have attained the knowledge, strategic abilities, and interests indicative of expertise cannot sit idly by as the domain shifts under their feet.’ (Alexander 2003, p. 12)
THE MODELS OF SKILL ACQUISITION AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT : A Quick Reference of Summaries
by Dr. Raman K. Attri
Published by Speed To Proficiency Research: S2Pro©
Published: April 2019
ISBN: 978-981-11-8988-3 (e-book) $19.99
ISBN: 978-981-14-1122-9 (paperback) $39.99
ISBN: 978-981-14-1130-4 (hardcover) $49.99
Summaries of 23 models of skill acquisition and expertise development for human performance and professional mastery
The book offers condensed summaries of twenty-three major models of skill acquisition and expertise development presented by leading researchers during the last half a century of classic and new research. This book presents new researchers in learning, training, cognitive sciences or education disciplines with a big picture starting point for their literature review journey. The book presents an easy to understand taxonomy of twenty-three models which can give new researchers a good bird’s eye view of existing models and theories, based on which they can decide which direction to dig further. The reviews in this book are complemented with over 200 authentic sources which a researcher read for detailed and deeper dive and set the direction for further exploration.
Broadly the book deals with discipline of “education” and it cross-cut in the disciplines of learning sciences, training, instructional design, cognitive sciences, cognitive psychology, expertise development, and performance improvement.
Research students and scholars: Ideally, this book is meant for research students, researchers and scholars (new and seasoned) who are researching the areas of human performance, education, expertise, skill development, instructional design, cognitive sciences, learning theory, training design, and similar disciplines. Ironically, most of the new researchers do not get a good handle on from where to start their literature review and which direction to go for more in-depth exploration. That is where this book may act as a time saver for those new scholars or research students in training, education and learning disciplines who are either new to these disciplines or who do not have any prior experience in conducting a literature review in these disciplines.
Academics and teaching staff: Additionally, academics or professors who are teaching courses or subjects in the above areas may find this book a useful enough to recommend this book to their students to plan for detailed literature review in such areas.
Instructional designers and HR practitioners: This book may also be helpful to professional instructional designers, learning specialists, trainers, and consultants who are interested in designing and delivering their programs or training sessions based on the understanding of mechanisms of human performance improvement, the process of human skill acquisition and theories of expertise development. HR specialists, learning designers, instructional designers, and performance consultants are trying to structure their training and learning programs for employee development around some established models or best practices. This book clarifies the mechanisms of skill acquisition and expertise development, which can be used to design research-based curriculums in educational or corporate settings.
Chapter 1 of the book elaborates on how the processes of learning, skill acquisition, and expertise development are interwoven.
Chapter 2 presents a classification of various models reviewed in literature in five categories.
Chapter 3 describes twelve models of skill and expertise acquisition which are represented in the form of stages. used frequently in learning, training and performance literature. The chapter also discusses the implications of each model toward developing skills and expertise of a less proficient individual to a higher level of proficiency briefly.
Chapter 4 reviews practice-, time- or task-based models which are theories or models suggesting that acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise and performance improvement is a function of nature of practice, amount of time spent on the task and task type.
Chapter 5 presents the factor-based models, which are based on theories or models suggesting the interplay of several factors that influence the acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise and performance improvement.
Chapter 6 embarks on describing expert modeling-based models which are theories or models suggesting modeling an expert through elicitation or guidance for acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise and performance improvement.
Chapter 7 covers some newer movement toward cognition-based models which are theories or models focusing on mechanisms of cognition learning for the acquisition of knowledge & skills, development of expertise and performance improvement.
Chapter 8 concludes the book by integrating views from various thought leaders to explain a famous staged skill acquisition model.
CHAPTER 1: LEARNING, SKILL ACQUISITION AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT
1.1 Learning and Performance
1.3 Expertise Development
CHAPTER 2: CLASSIFYING THE MODELS OF SKILL, PROFICIENCY AND EXPERTISE DEVELOPMENT
CHAPTER 3: STAGE-BASED MODELS
3.1 Conscious Competence Theory
3.2 Fitts & Posner (1967) Model of skill acquisItion
3.3 Anderson (1982) ACT-R Theory of Cognition
3.4 Ackerman (1988) Theory of Ability Determinants of Skill Acquisition
3.5 VanLehn (1996) Cognitive Skill Acquisition Theory
3.6 Kim et al. (2013) Theory of skill retention
3.7 Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development
3.8 Dreyfus & Dreyfus (1986) Stages of Skill Acquisition
3.9 Alexander (1997) Model of Domain Learning
3.10 Hoffman (1998) Proficiency Scale
3.11 Jacobs (1997) Levels of Human Competence
3.12 Rosenberg (2012) Novice to Expert Transition
CHAPTER 4: PRACTICE, TIME OR TASK-BASED MODELS
4.1 Blooms (1968) Mastery Learning Model
4.2 Ericsson et al. (1993) Deliberate Practice Model of Expert Performance
4.3 van Merriënboer et al. (1992) 4-Component Model of complex skill acquisition
4.4 Klein (1993) Recognition-Primed Decision Making (RPD) Model for Rapid Decision Making Expertise
CHAPTER 5: FACTOR-BASED MODELS
5.1 Sternberg (1999) Model of Intelligence as expertise development
5.2 Langan-Fox et al. (2002) Skilled Performance Theory
CHAPTER 6: EXPERT MODELING-BASED MODELS
6.1 Collins (1989) Cognitive Apprenticeship Model
6.2 Lajoie (2003) Trajectory of Expertise
6.3 Cognitive Task Analysis (CTA) Approach to Model Expertise
6.4 Vygotsky (1978) Zone of Proximal Development
CHAPTER 7: COGNITION-BASED MODELS
7.1 Spiro et al. (1990) Cognitive Flexibility Theory
7.2 Klein & Baxter (2oo9) Cognitive Transformation Theory
CHAPTER 8: PHASES OF SKILL ACQUISITION: INTEGRATING VARIOUS VIEWS
8.2 Advanced Beginner
8.7 Relevance of Stages in Professional Jobs
Raman K Attri is a corporate business researcher, learning strategist, and management consultant with a strong zeal to enable people to unravel human learning and performance. He specializes in providing the competitive and strategic value to the organizations by accelerating time-to-proficiency of employees through well-researched models. He holds a doctorate in business from Southern Cross University, Australia. His international professional career spanned over 25 years across a range of disciplines such as scientific research, systems engineering, management consulting, training operations, professional teaching, and learning design. A strong proponent of learning as the core of human success, he provides advisory on accelerated learning techniques which earned him over 60 educational credentials including doctorate degrees, three masters’ degrees and tens of international certifications. Despite physical disability since childhood, he leveraged it to learn, research and test a range of “how to methods” to accelerate the rate of personal learning and professional performance at the workplace. He has published his methods in scholarly journals, blogs, books, and conferences. He also runs a non-profit consulting forum focused on researching strategies to accelerate speed to proficiency.